Main Article Content


The aim of this study was to estimate the reliability coefficients of the tests prepared by faculty members in the preparatory year courses for both males and females at the University of Tabuk, using the Raju formula based on the predetermined fixed weights in the university regulations, regardless of their differentiating capability or the students' actual differences. Reliability coefficients were estimated again using the standard deviations of scores on these tests that were compared with the coefficients estimated by the Feldt-Gilmer formula that uses the variance covariance matrix of these tests. To address the questions of the study, the scores for all the students in 663 sections and 15 courses were analyzed, and the reliability coefficients were estimated. In light of the study’s hypothesis, another sample of 30 sections was selected randomly from the original sample to estimate reliability coefficients through the Feldt-Gilmer formula. The results indicated that the estimated mean of coefficients 0.68 in the average were lower than expected. Based on the university strategy which focuses on quality and excellence, higher reliability is required; mediocrity in this situation is not accepted. This means  that 0.68 was compared to 0.67 and 0.69 estimated by the adjusted Raju formula using standard deviations as weights, and by the  Feldt Gilmer respectively. The correlation between the reliability estimations using the last two formulas was very high (r = 0.98). The results revealed enough evidence statistically and practically for recommending the use of the modified Raju formula in practical situations to estimate the tests' reliability.


Raju Formula relative weights Feldt-Gilmer Formula variances-covariance matrix.

Article Details


  1. أبو جراد، حمدي (2009). دراسة سيكو مترية للعلامات الجامعية في عينة من المقررات في جامعة القدس المفتوحة. المجلة المصرية للدراسات النفسية،(66)، 23-55.
  2. الأحمد، محمد (2010). تقديرات الثبات للعلامات الجامعية في جامعة جدار باستخدام معادلة راجو للاختبارات المتشاكلة. رسالة ماجستير غير منشورة، جامعة جدارا، الأردن.
  3. السوالمة، يوسف (1995). تقدير الثبات للعلامات الجامعية في عينة من المساقات في جامعة اليرموك خلال الفصل الدراسي الثاني لعام 1992/1993 م. مجلة مركز البحوث، جامعة قطر (7)، 71-89.
  4. السوالمة، يوسف (2001). أثر تحليل نتائج الطلبة في المساقات الجامعية على ثبات الاتساق الداخلي للدرجات الجامعية. المجلة التربوية، 15 (85)، 151-175.
  5. الشايب، عبد الحافظ (2007). تقدير الثبات في عينة من المواد في جامعة آل البيت. مجلة جامعة دمشق للعلوم التربوية، (234) 255-271.
  6. عليان، ريم (2003). تقدير الثبات للعلامات المدرسية في مدينة إربد الكبرى في الفصل الدراسي الأول 2002/2003م. رسالة ماجستير غير منشورة، جامعة اليرموك، اربد، الأردن.
  7. العمري، حسان والعكور، معتصم (2014). أثر حجم الشعبة الدراسية على تقديرات الثبات للعلامات الجامعية. مجلة العلوم التربوية، جامعة الكويت، 15 (3)، 44-67.
  8. المسند، شيخة (1992). دراسة تحليلية لتوزيع تقديرات الطلاب في جامعة قطر في الفصل الدراسي خريف 1990م. حولية كلية التربية، جامعة قطر (9)، 125-153.
  9. Blight, D. (1988). Higher Education. London: Cassel Educational Limted.
  10. Division of Instructional Innovation and Assessment (DIIA) (2003). Test Item Analysis & Decision Making. Retrieved 20-9-2016 from
  11. Etaugh, A., Etaugh, C., & Hurd, D. (1972). Reliability of college grades and grade point average: some implications for prediction of academic performance. Educational and psychological Measurement, 32, 1045-1050.
  12. Feldt, L. & Bernnan, R. (1989). Reliability. In R. Linn. Educational measurement3rd ed.).New York: American Council on Education.
  13. Feldt, L. & Brennan, R. (1989). Reliability. In Linn, R.Ed.), Educational Measurement, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  14. Frary, R. (2000). Reliability of test scores. Retrieved 2-7-2016 from:
  15. http://www.testscoring.Vt.Edu/memo08.htm1.
  16. Gronlund, N. & Robert, L. (1990). Measurement and evaluation on teaching. (6th Edition). New York: Macmillan.
  17. Hathocat, J. (2013). Validity semantics in educational and psychological assessment. Practical assessment, Research and Evaluation 18 (9), 1-14.
  18. Iukke, A. (2014). Validity and reliability of teacher-made tests: Case study of year 11 Physics in Nyahururu District of Kenya. African Educational Research Journal, 2(2), 61-71.
  19. Kingston, N. & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: A meta-analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(4), 28-37.
  20. Nobel, J. (1991). Predicting College course grades using ACT Assessment scores and high school course work information (ACT Research Report). Iowa: ACT.
  21. Notar, C., Zuelke, D., Wilson, J., & Yunker, B. (2004).The table of specifications: Insuring accountability in teacher mad tests. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31, 115-129.
  22. Parr, A. & Bauer, W. (2006). Teacher made test reliability: a comparison of test scores and student study habits from Friday to Monday in a high school biology class in Monroe County Ohio. Master Thesis. Graduate School of Marietta College. Retrieved april,12,1972 From
  24. Raju, N. (1977). A generalization of coefficient alpha. Psychometrika,42, 549-565.
  25. Rudner, L. & Schafer, W. (2001). Assessment and evaluation- College Park. (Reports-Research (1129).U.S: University of Maryland: Clearing house on Assessment and Evaluation College Park, MD. (ERIC Document Reproduction service No. ED 458213).
  26. Sawer, R. (1989).Validating the use of ACT assessment scores and high school course work information (ACT Research Report). Iowa: ACT.
  27. Shoenfeldt, l. & Brush, D. (1975). Patterns of college grades across curricular areas: Some implication for GPA as criterion. American Educational Research Journal, 12 , 313-321.
  28. Thorndike, R. & Hagen, E. (1986). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (4th Edition). New York: Macmillan.
  29. Wells, C. & Wollack, J. (2003). An instructor's guide to understanding test reliability. Testing & Evaluation Services, University of Wisconsin.
  30. Worthen, B., Brog, W. & White, K. (1993). Measurement and evaluation in the schools. White Plains, NY: Longman.