Main Article Content


The study aimed to explore the causal relationships between supervising working alliance, counseling self-esteem and attachment styles through a causal model adopting a path analysis method. The study sample consisted of 289 counseling students at Yarmouk University. Three scales were administered to measure the supervising working alliance, self-esteem and attachment styles.  Results showed a direct relationship between avoidant attachment styles and supervising working alliance, and an indirect relationship with counseling self-esteem. There was a direct relationship between secure attachment style, supervising working alliance and counseling self-esteem; and between supervising working alliance and counseling self-esteem.  In addition, direct and indirect relationships were evident between avoidant attachment style and special relationship domain of supervising working alliance and counseling self-esteem; whereas it affected client focus domain with a direct relationship. Direct relationships also were evident between secure attachment styles, the relationship domain and self-focus domain.  


Causal attribution supervisory working alliance counseling self esteem attachment patterns.

Article Details


  1. Aasheim, L. (2012). Practical clinical supervision for sounselors : An experiential guide. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  2. Abiddin, N. (2008). Exploring clinical supervision to facilitate the creative process of supervision. The Journal Of International Social Research, 1(3), 13-33.
  3. Ainsworth, M. (1989). Attachment beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44 (4), 709–716.
  4. Ainsworth, M. 1). S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, 5. (1997). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  5. Bhat, C., & Davis, T. (2007). Counseling supervisors' assessment of race, racial identity, and working alliance in supervisory dyads. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 35(2), 80-91. Retrieved from
  6. Bilodeau, C., Savard, R., & Lecomte, C. (2010). Examining supervisor agreement on alliance: Is shame a factor?. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 44 (3), 272-282.
  7. Borders, L., Glosoff, H., Welfare, L., Hays, D., & DeKruyf, L. (2014). Best practices in clinical supervision: Evolution of a counseling specialty. The Clinical Supervisor, 33(1), 26-44.
  8. Bordin, E. (1976). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16(3), 252-260.
  9. Bordin, E. (1983). A working alliance based model of supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 11 (1), 35-42.
  10. Brott, P.E. (2004). Constructivist assessment in career counseling. Journal of Career Development, 30, 189-200.
  11. Chang, S.-f., & Liao, F.-t. (2007). A pilot study of supervisory alliance building process: An example of one supervision dyad. The Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 29(1), 67-86.
  12. Day, M. (2006). The relation of supervisors' attractive styles to their perceptions of self-efficacy in providing corrective feedback and to the working alliance in counselor education. Doctoral dissertation, The University of New Orleans. Retrieved from
  13. Efstation, J., Patton, M., & Kardash, C. (1990). Measuring the working alliance in counselor supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 322-329.
  14. Falender, C. (2014). Clinical supervision in a competency-based era. South African Journal of Psychology. 44(1), 6–17.
  15. Hattie, J. (1985). Methodology review: assessing unidimensionality of tests and items. Applied Psychological Measurement, 9, 139-164.
  16. Holloway, E. (1987). Developmental models of supervision: Is it development? Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 19, 209-216.
  17. Horrocks, S., & Samby, M. (2006). The Supervisory Relationship: Its Impact on Trainee Personal and Skills Development. Compelling Perspective on Counseling: VISTAS, 173-176. Retrieved from
  18. Humeidan, M. (2002). Counseling self-efficacy, supervisory working alliance, and social influence in supervision. Dissertation Abstract International, 63 (03).
  19. Karairmark, O., & Durah, N .(2008). Gender differences in attachment styles regarding conflict handling behaviors among Turkish late adolescents . In j Adv Counseling,30, 220-234.
  20. Kipnis, S., Lincourt, P., & Killar, R. (2009). Introduction to clinical supervision addiction medicine workbook. Retrieved from
  21. Ladany, N., Ellis, M. V., & Friedlander, M. L. (1999). The supervisory working alliance, trainee self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(4), 47-455. Doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1999.tb02472.x
  22. Ladany, N., Ellis, M., Friedlander, M., & Stern, M. (1992). The supervisory working alliance: Its relation to trainee self-efficacy and satisfaction with supervision. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C.
  23. Ladany, N., Lehrman-Waterman, D., Molinaro, M., & Wolgast, B. (1999). Psychotherapy supervisor ethical practices: Adherence to guidelines, the supervisory working alliance, and supervisee satisfaction. Counseling Psychologist, 27(3), 443-475.
  24. Ladany, N., Walker, J., & Melincof, D. (2001). Supervisory style: Its relation to the supervisory working alliance and supervisor self-disclosure. Counselor Education & Supervision, 40(4), 263
  25. Lampropoulos, G. (2003) A Common factors view of counseling supervision process. The Clinical Supervisor, 21(1),77-95.
  26. Larson, L. M., Suzuki, L. A., Gillespie, K. N., Potenza, M. T., Bechtel, M. A., & Toulouse, A. L. (1992). Development and validation of the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(1), 105-120.
  27. Loganbill, C., Hardy, E. & Delworth, U. (1983). Supervision: A Conceptual Model. The Counseling Psychologist, 10(1), 3-42.
  28. March, D. (2005). The relationship between self-disclosure, self-efficacy, and the supervisory working alliance of counselor education practicum and internship students. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Central Florida, United States, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from
  29. McNeill, B. W., Stoltenberg, C. D., & Pierce, R. A. (1985). Supervisees’ perceptions of their development: A test of the counselor complexity model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32 (4), 630–633. Doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.32.4.630
  30. Ramos-Sánchez, L., Esnil, E., Riggs, S., Wright, L., Goodwin, A., Ratanasiripong, P., …Rodolfa, E. (2002). Negative Supervisory Events: Effects on Supervision Satisfaction and Supervisory Alliance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33 (2), 197-202. doi: 10.1037//0735-7028.33.2.197
  31. Skovholt, T. M., & Ronnestad, M. H. (2003). Struggles of the novice counselor and therapist. Journal of Career Development, 30, 45 -58.
  32. Sterner, W. (2007). Influence of the supervisory working alliance on work satisfaction and work-related stress for counselors in professional setting. Doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania University. Retrieved from http:
  33. Super D.E & Savickas M. L & Super C.M. (1994). The life-Span, life Approach to Career, in D. Brown, L Brooks et coll. (eds.), Career choice and Development, San Fracisco, Jossey-Bass, 121-178.
  34. Terranova-Nirenberg, JA. (2013). A quantitative study investigating supervisory style, satisfaction with supervisory and self-efficacy among female clinical training supervisees. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University. Retrieved from http:
  35. Ting, H-C. (2009). Satisfaction with supervision as a function of the supervisory working alliance and self-efficacy among Taiwanese master-level counseling internship students. Doctoral dissertation, University of South California. Retrieved from
  36. Wood, C. (2005). Supervisory Working Alliance: A Model Providing Direction for College Counseling Supervision. Journal of College Counseling, 8, 127-137.