Main Article Content


A 24-item questionnaire was designed to collect specific data in order to determine Omani students’ attitudes toward agriculture and, specifically, whether or not these attitudes differ according to gender and the geographical regions where students reside. A survey research method based on the use of a questionnaire was employed. The questionnaire items were divided into four domains: participants’ general knowledge about agriculture, their personal interest about agriculture, the role of government in supporting agriculture, and the role of agriculture in food security. The questionnaire was administered to 394 randomly selected Grade 10 students. Participants consisted of 189 male students and 205 female students in total. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 students from North Al Batinah Governorate, 142 from Al-Dakhiliyah Governorate, and 122 from Muscat Governorate. Questionnaire reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha, an internal consistency method, which resulted in a value of 0.83 for the instrument. The study was conducted in the 2016/2017 academic year. The findings indicated that students’ attitudes toward agriculture, overall, were positive and both gender and geographical region had an effect upon their attitudes. The results of this study demonstrate a need to recommend improving students’ attitudes towards agriculture, especially for students who reside in the Muscat Governorate; for example, schools should be encouraged to include agricultural collaborative learning activities, both inside and outside the classroom. Overall, the study results suggest a benefit in conducting additional research in the area of agriculture education in Oman.


Attitudes agriculture 10th grade students gender geographical region.

Article Details


  1. Aiken, L. (1997). Psychological Testing and Assessment (9th edition). Needham Heights, Allyn & Bacon.
  2. Ambusaidi, A. & Al-Fari, K. (2017). In-vestigating Omani science teachers' attitudes toward teaching science: the role of gender and teaching ex-periences. International Journal of Sci-ence and Mathematics Education. 15: 71-88.
  3. Ambusaidi, A. & Al-Rashidi, T. (2012). Science teachers' attitudes towards using science reading in the class-room and its relations to some edu-cational variables. Journal of University of Damascus for Educational and Psychological Sciences, 28(2), 315-345.
  4. Ambusaidi, A. (2018). Towards a Compre-hensive School Sustainability: Practical Examples from Arab Gulf Countries. Doha, UNESCO Office. (In Arabic).
  5. Ambusaidi, A., Al- Yahyai, R. & Taylor, N. (2015). Establishing and re-searching school gardens in Oman as a resource for improving educa-tion outcomes. Environment and Eco-nomic Studies, 15(4): 415-430.
  6. Ambusaidi, A., Al-Yahyai, R., Taylor, S., & Taylor, N. (2018). Introducing School Gardens to the Omani Con-text: A preliminary study with Grade 7 classes. Eurasia Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technological Education, 14(3):1043-1055.
  7. Astin, A. W. (1993). What Matters in Col-lege (Vol. 9). San Francisco, Jossey-bass.‏
  8. Badawi, S., Abdul Ghani, S, Khalil, K. and Abdul Hamid, M. (2011). The effectiveness of a proposed in the home economy for the development of nutritional awareness among students in the preparatory stage in North Sinai. Journal of Reading and Knowledge, 120, 51-67 (In Arabic).
  9. Bamberger, Y., & Tal, T. (2007). Learning in a personal-context: Levels of choice in a free-choice learning environment in science and natural history museums. Science Education, 91, 75-95.
  10. Bellisle, F., Monneuse, M. O., Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1995). Weight con-cerns and eating patterns: A survey of university students in Europe. International journal of obesity, 19(10), 723-730.‏
  11. Bowker, R. & Tearle, P. (2007). Garden-ing as a learning environment: A study of children’s perceptions and understanding of school gardens as part of an international project. Learning Environ Res, 10, 83–100. DOI 10.1007/s10984-007-9025-0.
  12. Butler, L. M., & Maronek, D. M. (2002). Urban and Agricultural Communities: Opportunities for Common Ground. (CAST Task Force Report 138). Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.
  13. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Action research. Research methods in education, 5, 226-244.‏
  14. Desmond, D., Grieshop, J., & Subrama-nium, A. (2004). Revisiting Garden based Learning in Basic Education. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
  15. Enderlin, K J., Petrea, R. E., & Osborne, E. W., (1993). Student and teacher attitude toward and performance in an integrated science/agriculture course. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Central Region Research Conference in Agricultural Education, 37- 44. St. Louis, MO.
  16. Enderlin, K. J., & Osborne, E. W. (1992). Student achievement, attitudes, and thinking skill attainment in an integrated science/agriculture course. Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual National Agricultural Education Research Meeting. St. Louis, MO.
  17. Greenwald, A. G. (1989). Attitude Struc-ture and Function. Hillsdale, NJ: Erl-baum Associates.
  18. Gun, E. (2012). Attitudes of primary school teacher candidates towards the teaching profession. Procedia- Social and behavioral Sciences, 46, 2922-2926.
  19. Heim, S., Stang, J., & Ireland, M. (2009). A garden pilot project enhances fruit and vegetable consumption among children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), 1220-1226.‏
  20. Hoffman, A. J., Trepagnier, B., Cruz, A., & Thompson, D. (2004). Gardening activity as an effective measure in improving self-efficacy and self-esteem: Community college students learning effective living skills. The Community College Enterprise, 9, 231-239.
  21. Kristal, A. R., Bowen, D. J., Curry, S. J., Shattuck, A. L., & Henry, H. J. (1990). Nutrition knowledge, atti-tudes and perceived norms as correlates of selecting low-fat diets. Health Education Research, 5(4), 467-477.‏
  22. Li, W. & Lang, G. (2014). Effects of Green School and Parents on Chil-dren’s Perceptions of Human-Nature Relationships in China. Child Indicators Research, 8, 587– 604. DOI 10.1007/s12187-014-9265-3.
  23. Mabie, R., & Baker, M. (1996). A com-parison of experiential instructional strategies upon the science process skills of urban elementary youth. Journal of Agricultural Education, 37 (2), 1-7.
  24. Meischen, D. L & Trexler, C. J. (2003). Rural elementary students' under-standing of science and agricultural education benchmarks related to meat and livestock. Journal of Agri-cultural Education, 44(1), 43-55.
  25. Metin, M., Acisli, S. & Kolomuc, A. (2012). Attitude of elementary pro-spective teachers towards science teaching. Procedia- Social and Behav-ioral Sciences, 46, 2004-2008.
  26. National Centre for Statistics and Infor-mation (NCSI) (2018a). Statistical Year Book. Muscat, Oman. (In Ara-bic).
  27. National Centre for Statistics and Infor-mation (NCSI) (2018b). Share of Agriculture Sector in GDP (%). Re from: (In Arabic).
  28. Ohly, H., Gentry, S., Wigglesworth, R., Bethel, A., Lovell, R., & Garside, R. (2016). A systematic review of the health and well-being impacts of school gardening: synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 286.‏
  29. Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International journal of science education, 25(9), 1049-1079.‏
  30. Parman, J. (2012). Good schools make good neighbors: Human capital spillovers in early 20th century agriculture. Explorations in Economic History, 49(3), 316-334.‏
  31. Passy, R., Morris, M., & Reed, F. (2011). Impact of school gardening on learning: final report to the Royal Horticultural Society. London, National Founda-tion for Educational Research.
  32. Phipps L; Osborne E; Dyer J; Ball A (2008). Handbook on Agricultural Education in Public School (6th Edition). NY, Delmar Learning.
  33. Roegge, C. A. & Russell, E. B. (1990). Teaching applied biology in second-ary agriculture: Effects on student achievement and attitudes. Journal of Agricultural Education, 31 (1), 27-31.
  34. ‏Schroeder, B. (2011, January 18). Health and Food Security. Retrieved from
  35. Serdula, M. K., Collins, M. E., William-son, D. F., Anda, R. F., Pamuk, E., & Byers, T. E. (1993). Weight control practices of US adolescents and adults. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119, 667-671.‏
  36. Sheffield, B. K. (1992). The affective and cognitive effects of an interdisciplinary garden-based curriculum on undera-chieving elementary students. Un-published doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, Co-lumbia, SC.
  37. Sloane, B. C., & Zimmer, C. G. (1993). The power of peer health education. Journal of American College Health, 41(6), 241-245.‏
  38. Tal, R. (2012). Out-of-school: Learning experiences, teaching and students’ learning. In B.
  39. Times of Oman (2016). Oman celebrates Tree Day. 30th October.
  40. Times of Oman (2017). Oman second most food-secured country in GCC. 29th November.
  41. Ugras, M., Altunbas, S., Ay, K. & Cil, E. (2012). Determination of pre-service science and classroom teachers' attitudes towards science teaching and technology and relationship between these attitudes. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1549-1553.
  42. Utter. J, Denny, S. & Dyson, B. (2016). School gardens and adolescent nu-trition and BMI: Results from a na-tional, multilevel study. Preventive Medicine 83, 1–4
  43. Wardle, J., Griffith, J., Johnson, F., & Rapoport, L. (2000). Intentional weight control and food choice habits in a national representative sample of adults in the UK. International Journal of obesity, 24(5), 534.‏
  44. Wardle, J., Haase, A. M., Steptoe, A., Nillapun, M., Jonwutiwes, K., & Bellisie, F. (2004). Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27(2), 107-116.‏
  45. Wells, N., Myers, B. & Henderson Jr, C. (2014). Study protocol: effects of school gardens on children’s physi-cal activity. Archives of Public Health, 72, 43.
  46. Williams, D. R., & Dixon, P. S. (2013). Impact of garden-based learning on academic outcomes in schools: Syn-thesis of research between 1990 and 2010. Review of Educational Research, 83(2), 211-235.‏
  47. Zaitoon, A. (1996). Teaching Science Strategies. Amman: Dar Al-Shorooq.