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Objectives: This study aimed to develop and validate a health education programme to encourage breast cancer awareness and early detection behaviours among Arab women. Methods: This study took place between December 2015 and March 2016. The Enabling Systems Raising Awareness model was used to develop a breast cancer health education programme which was subsequently implemented by trained health educators at three female-only fitness clubs in Muscat, Oman. Breast cancer knowledge among 53 women was assessed using the breast module of the Cancer Awareness Measure before and after each health education session. Overall pre- and post-session knowledge scores were then compared. Additionally, three focus group discussions were conducted with 10 participants from each location. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the transcribed discussions and collect feedback on the programme. Results: The health education sessions resulted in a statistically significant increase in overall mean knowledge scores (P <0.001). Participants also reported significantly improved intentions to undertake early detection practices (P <0.001). The focus group discussions yielded distinct themes and valuable feedback which can be utilised in the future to create an improved version of the programme. Conclusion: While the health education programme significantly improved breast cancer and early detection knowledge among a cohort of Arab women, it still required critical improvements in terms of structure and administration. Additional studies are required in order to evaluate long-term behavioural outcomes resulting from the improved programme.


Breast Cancer Preventive Health Services Health Behavior Health Education Health Promotion Validation Studies Oman.

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Alkhasawneh, E., Al-Farsi, Y., Al-Simadi, F., & Leocadio, M. (2017). Development and Validation of a Culturally-Tailored Breast Cancer Health Education Programme for Arab Women. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 17(2), 181–190.