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Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. As M. pneumoniae pneumonia is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, complications such as pleural effusion occur only rarely. We report a 22-year-old woman who presented to the Emergency Medicine Department of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2017 with an eight-day history of fever associated with coughing, chills and rigors. She was diagnosed with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, but subsequently developed pleural effusion which worsened despite treatment with appropriate antimicrobials. The pleural effusion required drainage, which revealed that it was of the more severe exudative type. Following drainage, the patient improved dramatically. She was discharged and advised to continue taking antibiotics.

Keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Bacterial Pneumonia; Pleural Effusion; Antimicrobial Agents; Drainage; Case Report; Oman.

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How to Cite
Hassan, K. S., & Al-Khadouri, G. (2018). Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia with Worsening Pleural Effusion Despite Treatment with Appropriate Antimicrobials: Case report. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 18(2), e239–242.