A Study of Post-Caesarean Section Wound Infections in a Regional Referral Hospital, Oman

Hansa Dhar, Ibrahim Al-Busaidi, Bhawna Rathi, Eman A. Nimre, Vibha Sachdeva, Ilham Hamdi

Abstract


Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing a Caesarean section (CS) and to identify risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and antibiotic sensitivity. SSI significantly affect the patient’s quality of life by increasing morbidity and extending hospital stays. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Nizwa Hospital, Oman, to determine the incidence of post-Caesarean (PCS) SSI from 2001 to 2012. This was followed by a case-control study of 211 PCS cases with SSI. Controls (220) were randomly selected cases, at the same hospital in the same time period, who had undergone CS without any SSI. Data was collected on CS type, risk factors, demographic profile, type of organism, drug sensitivity and date of infection. Results: The total number of PCS wound infections was 211 (2.66%). There was a four-fold higher incidence of premature rupture of the membranes (37, 17.53%) and a three-fold higher incidence of diabetes (32, 15.16%) in the PCS cases compared with controls. The most common organisms responsible for SSI were Staphylococcus aureus (66, 31.27%) and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli group (40, 18.95%). The most sensitive antibiotics were aminoglycoside and cephalosporin. Polymicrobial infections were noted in 42 (19.90%), while 47 (22.27%) yielded no growth. A high incidence of associated risk factors like obesity, hypertension, anaemia and wound haematoma was noted. Conclusion: Measures are recommended to reduce the incidence of SSI, including the implementation of infection prevention practices and the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis with rigorous surgical techniques.



Keywords


Caesarean Section; Surgical Wound Infections; Wounds and Injuries; Antibiotics; Risk Factors; Nosocomial Infections; Oman.

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Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

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