Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting : Cross-sectional study

Mohammed Al-Azri, Iman Al-Lawati, Raya Al-Kamyani, Maisa Al-Kiyumi, Aisha Al-Rawahi, Robin Davidson, Abdullah Al-Maniri


Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986). An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%). Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%). A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010), marital conflict (P = 0.001) and a family history of depression (P = 0.019). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86) and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93). Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy.


Pregnancy; Depression; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Women; Primary Health Care; Oman.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 35, Postal Code 123, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman

ISSN (Print edition): 2075-051X ISSN (Internet edition): 2075-0528

Copyright SQUMJ 2019. This journal and its content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives 4.0 International license.

Flag Counter